Arai Hakuseki

By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

http://www.britannica.com

Arai Hakuseki, (born March 24, 1657, Edo [now Tokyo], Japan—died June 29, 1725, Edo), Japanese statesman and scholar who was a chief adviser to the Tokugawa shoguns in the early years of the 18th century.

Born into an impoverished samurai, or warrior, family, Arai educated himself under conditions of extreme hardship. He found employment in 1682 under Hotta Masatoshi (1634–84), a top government official. When Hotta died two years later, Arai became tutor to Tokugawa Ienobu (ruled 1709–12), the heir apparent to the shogun, the hereditary military dictator of Japan. Ienobu became shogun in 1709, and Arai became the leading architect of government policy.

The Tokugawa government had grown lax, and bureaucratic rigidity had come to hamper efficiency. Arai attempted to make the laws of the country more practical; he reformed the currency and instituted a rigid system of budgeting and accounting. To stop the drain of precious metals from the country, he further tightened governmental control over foreign trade. Arai attempted to institute a policy by which it would be clear to foreign powers that Japan’s emperor was merely symbolic and real sovereignty resided with the shogun.

Although Ienobu died in 1712, Arai remained in the government throughout the reign of his successor, Tokugawa Ietsugu. But when the strong-minded Tokugawa Yoshimune came to power in 1716, Arai was forced to retire. He then devoted the rest of his life to writing.

Arai’s works total more than 160 books. He wrote pioneering studies in Japanese geography, philosophy, and legal institutions and is considered one of the greatest historians of Japan. Among his best-known works are Tokushi yoron (“Thoughts on History”), a study of Japanese history from the 9th to the 16th century; Koshitsū (“The Understanding of Ancient History”), a critical study of the earliest documentary sources; and his autobiography, Oritaku shiba no ki (Told Round a Brushwood Fire; 1979).

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